19 Apr 2014

Tok Kenali

Tok Kenali pelopor transformasi
DR MASHITAH IBRAHIM
18 April 2014


TOK KENALI, atau nama sebenarnya Hj Mohamad Yusof Ahmad, adalah seorang ulama pondok tersohor. Lahir di Kampung Kenali, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan sekitar 1860an, beliau bagaikan magnet yang mampu dekatkan pemerintah istana dengan rakyat, antara ahli agama dengan karyawan, serta membina jambatan antara pemimpin dengan orang biasa.

Berguru dengan ulama pondok hebat Hj Wan Ahmad al-Fatoni, beliau mahir dalam pelbagai cabang ilmu agama. Tok Kenali adalah tokoh rohaniah, malah pemikir, penulis dan guru. Di Malaysia, muridnya ribuan orang, datangnya dari dalam dan luar negara.

Malah ramai di antara mereka yang kemudian membuka pondok di merata tempat. Antara muridnya ialah Hj Nik Mahmud Ismail, yang kemudian menjadi Menteri Besar. Sebagai ahli bahasa, beliau mahir 12 ilmu bahasa Arab.

Selama 22 tahun di luar negara, 12 tahun beliau mengajar tauhid, feqah, nahu, tafsir dan tasauf di Makkah. Antara jasanya ialah idea menubuhkan Majlis Agama Islam dan kemudian menjadi anggotanya, menjadi guru besar di Masjid Muhammadi, ahli Majlis Ulama dan pengarang Majalah Pengasuh.

Tok Kenali juga seorang futurist dan berwawasan. Banyak idea dan pandangannya masih relevan hingga ke hari ini. Beliau menekankan adab dan disiplin kerana inilah faktor yang mengangkat maruah sesuatu bangsa.

Katanya, sesuatu bangsa perlu capai kemajuan dengan mencontohi bangsa yang sudah maju dan berjaya, namun penting bertunjang pada tradisi agar tidak menjadi lalai. Beliau mengajar umat bekerja bersungguh-sungguh dan sabar kerana ini adalah kunci kejayaan.

“Manusia tidak menikmati kesempurnaan dengan mudah untuk mendaki ke puncak, kejayaan menghendaki seseorang itu banyak bersabar, kerana kalau berharap mencapai ketinggian dengan tiada berusaha sama seperti orang menjalankan bahtera di atas darat, sebab bahtera tidak ada yang berlari di atas tanah yang kering.”

Dalam melahirkan kekecewaan tentang tahap kemajuan bangsa Melayu yang rendah, beliau sebenarnya mencabar dan mendorong bangsanya untuk bangun menjadi maju.

“Anak-anak putera saya ini tiada sangat berbeza di antara masa mereka berteduh di bawah telinga gajah (kerajaan Siam) dan masa mereka itu berteduh di bawah dagu Singa (kerajaan British)... Ayuhai ahli Semenanjung Tanah Melayu, marilah kita munafakat menjadi satu kalimah, supaya mudah kita buat kerja tolong menolong...

Puaslah saya menanti dari berdiri hingga duduk, dan dari duduk hingga tidur, orang-orang yang pandai buat kerja. Saya harap daripada mereka yang boleh buat kerja itu berhalus-halus dan perlahan-lahan pada menariknya yang liar pada jinak, jangan penat sahaja maksudnya tiada hasil.

Tiadalah puas hati saya mati sebelum saya lihat perubahan yang baru lagi elok.” Pada saya, jelas Tok Kenali adalah antara pelopor transformasi yang terawal. Beliau mengambil berat tentang umat Melayu-Islam.

Pernah masyarakat berdebat tentang istilah Melayu pada awal 1920an. Ada yang kata Melayu malas, tak bangga menjadi Melayu, malah ada yang mencadangkan supaya istilah ‘Melayu’ ditukar sebab ada bunyi ‘layu’ padanya.

Tapi dalam bahasa Jawa, ‘layu’ maknanya ‘lari’ - ada konotasi laju dan kuat di situ. Tok Kenali mengkaji perkara ini dari sudut etimologi, antropologi dan tingkah laku bangsanya. Akhirnya, dalam Majalah Al-Hidayah (1923), dia melahirkan bangkangannya terhadap cadangan yang tidak munasabah itu.

Katanya, mengubah nama bangsa tidak boleh mengubah tingkah laku orang Melayu. Yang penting ialah perubahan dari segi pendidikan dan kebijaksanaan. Dia mengambil contoh orang Jepun, yang mampu mencapai kemajuan tinggi namun tetap setia dan bangga dengan cara hidup mereka.

Tok Kenali berkata orang Melayu bukan lemah jika dilihat daripada tanggungjawab dan kerja berat yang mereka buat. Dia menjelaskan, orang Eropah pun mengakui otak orang Melayu sama dengan otak orang Jepun.

Kita ingin melihat adanya jiwa dan semangat Tok Kenali dalam kalangan ulama dan tok guru pondok masa kini. Mari kita hayati kata-kata Tok Kenali ini.

Katanya: “Hendaklah kita berbuat sesuatu yang dapat menunjukkan bahawa kita dapat berbuat baik sekurang-kurangnya jauh berbeza dengan masa yang sudah-sudah, diharapkan kepada Tuhan kita berada dalam perubahan yang baik.”

sinar harian

Biografi Tok Kenali


Latar Belakang Tok Kenali

Gelaran Tok Kenali lebih dikenali umum berbanding nama asal beliau iaitu Muhammad Yusuf Bin Ahmad. Kadang-kadang ada juga yang memanggil Tok Kenali dengan nama Awang Kenali sahaja. Namun demikian, nama Awang Kenali bukan gelaran biasa.

Hal ini kerana menurut tulisan Wan Mohd. Shagir Abdullah, nama Awang Kenali berpunca daripada gurunya sendiri iaitu Syeikh Ahmad al-Fathani. Gelaran 'Awang' berasal daripada perkataan 'Awan'. Guru kepada Tok Kenali itu menyatakan tingginya ilmu Tok kenali mencapai ke tahap 'awan'. Daripada perkataan 'awan' itulah kemudian bertukar kepada Awang.

Beliau dianggap sebagai seorang ulamak ulung, guru agama unggul dan tokoh pemikiran umat Islam di Tanah Melayu dan Asia Tenggara zaman berzaman di awal abad ke 20an. Bukan setakat itu sahaja, malahan nama beliau gah di negara Arab sehingga di Tanah Suci Mekah.

Tokoh ilmuan ini lahir di Kampung Kenali, Kubang Kerian, Kota Baharu Kelantan dalam tahun 1287H bersamaan dengan 1870H semasa pemerintahan Sultan Muhammad 11 yang hidup di antara tahun 1837 hingga 1886M.

Allah SWT mengizinkan Tok Kenali menjalani kehidupan di dunia fana ini selama 65 tahun. Ulama tersohor ini kembali ke rahmatullah pada hari Ahad 19 November 1933M lebih kurang jam 7.30 pagi Ahad bersamaan 2 Syaaban 1352H. Beliau dikebumikan di Kubang Kerian, Kelantan.


Sumbangan

Sekiranya hendak dihitung sumbangan beliau dalam arena dakwah di negara kita banyak sekali. Beliau merupakan pelopor utama dalam mengembangkan sistem sekolah pondok yang memartabatkan agama Islam dalam Malaysia dan luar negara.

Murid-murid yang berguru dengannya kemudian membuka pondok di tempat lain di luar daripada negeri Kelantan. Oleh itu, tidak hairanlah beliau berjaya melahirkan ramai ulamak-ulamak hebat di Tanah Melayu ini.

Tok Kenali merupakan orang penting dalam perkembangan pemikiran Islam di Tanah Melayu khususnya. Banyak karya-karya yang mencerna dan membangunkan pemikiran masyarakat Islam Malaysia dibentangkan dalam Majalah Pengasuh. Beliau bukan sahaja pengarang, malahan beliau adalah Ketua Pengarang majalah tersebut.


Pencarian Ilmu

Sewaktu kecil beliau diasuh dan dididik dengan pendidikan agama oleh datukya kerana ayahnya telah meninggal dunia ketika berusia lima tahun. Datuk beliau merupakan seorang warak dan memiliki ilmu agama serta patuh kepada peraturan-peraturan Ilahi. Tok Kenali mempelajari Al-Quran dan tulis menulis daripada datuknya sendiri Encik Shalih atau lebih mesra dengan Tok Leh .

Nenek tirinya turut mendidik Tok Kenali dan cukup menjaga hal-hal makanan dan minuman yang hendak diberikan kepada Tuk Kenali kerana beliau percaya makanan yang haram boleh membentuk peribadi tidak elok kepada diri seseorang.

Kegigihan Tok Kenali dalam menuntut ilmu memang sukar ditandingi. Sejak berumur sembilan ke sepuluh tahun lagi Allahyarham telah mengambil langkah untuk menuntut ilmu di luar daripada kampung halamannya. Beliau tekad menuju ke Kota Bharu, Kelantan dan tempat pertama yang ditujuinya adalah masji Al-Muhammadi. Di sana terdapat ramai guru-guru agama dan beratus-ratus murid dari seluruh ceruk negeri Kelantan yang menyambung pelajaran.

Di negeri Kelantan beliau menutut ilmu Bahasa Arab, nahu, saraf dan pengetahuan agama. Minatnya dalam menuntut ilmu tidak terhenti setakat itu sahaja kerana beliau bercita-cita melanjutkan pelajaran ke Mekah.

Cita-cita Tok Kenali untuk meningkatkan ilmu agama di Tanah Haram Mekah akhirnya tercapai juga ketika umurnya 18 tahun. Pada tahun 1887M bersamaan dengan 1305H Tok Kenali berjaya menjejakkan kaki di Kota Suci Mekah bagi meneruskan pengajian dan menjalani ibadah rukun Islam ke lima iaitu menunaikan haji.


Sebelum sampai ke Mekah, pelbagai rintangan yang perlu ditempohnya, namun semangatnya tetap utuh untuk meneruskan impiannya. Menurut riwayat, semasa dalam pelayaran menuju ke Mekah kapal yang ditungganginya mengalami kerosakan dan pelayaran yang terpaksa ditempoh adalah selama 6 bulan. Pemergiaannya ke Mekah hanya berbekalkan wang RM 22 pemberian ibunya beserta bantuan rakan dan sahabat sebanyak RM 50.

Semasa di Mekah, segala cabaran dalam menuntut ilmu diharungi oleh Tok Kenali dengan penuh sabar walaupun kesukaran di perantauan sukar digambarkankan. Di percayai sekitar 7 bulan lamanya beliau tidak mempunyai tempat tinggal yang tetap. Beliau hanya berehat di Serambi Masjidil Haram dan mencari waktu-waktu kekosongan orang untuk tidur. Sedangkan Masjidil Haram menjadi tempat orang ramai beribadat seperti bertawaf, saie, solat dan sebagainya.

musafir suci
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18 Apr 2014

Jumaat









JUMUAH (Friday) REMINDER
1. Cut Nails
2. Have a Ghusal
3. Salaat al-Jumu’ah (Friday prayer)
4. Making a lot of du’aa ’. ( between the time the Imam sits
 down until the time the prayer is over and after Asr until Sunset )
5. Reading Soorat al-Kahf
6. Sending a lot of blessings upon the 
Prophet (sallAllahu 'alyhi wasallam).
7. Make Istighfar/Seek forgiveness
8. Do as many good deeds as possible


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17 Apr 2014

PBAKL 24 April - 4 Mei












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meraih bulan

senyumlah
malam sedang menyapa
membelai tidurmu
senyumlah
dalam mimpi bintang-bintang
meraih bulan
senyumlah usah rindu
berbagi sepi melayar sangsi
gelisah janganlah dibiar memanjat tinggi
kejauhan biarlah membuah rindu
kerana di dalam malam
akan ada angin menari
melayarkan perahu awan
akan bintang-bintang bersyair indah
bermadah berlagu di ujung kelopakmu
tenteramlah jiwa yang berkelana
malam sedang menanggalkan senyap dan tenteram
senyumlah 
rindu bertaut di bingkai mimpi

senyumlah
biar jemarimu meraih bulan
esok akan datang matahari
mengajarmu berlari 
mencari senja
malam ini aku di mimpimu
mamatahkan ketakutan
esok hitunglah lagi
perjuangan baru
kerana bulan tak selamanya
di situ menunggumu



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Monolog Jual Ubat



Jual Ubat akhirnya
Oleh RASDAN AHMAD


KHALID Salleh menjelajah ke seluruh negara dan beberapa bandar utama di Indonesia bersama teater monolog Jual Ubat. Semalam Khalid membuat persembahan di Makasar , Indonesia dan sambutannya sangat menggalakan.

Teater monolog sebenarnya tidak asing lagi kepada tokoh teater yang mula berteater sejak usia 12 tahun lagi. Bagaimanapun Jual Ubat mencatatkan pencapaian yang luar biasa dan menjadi satu fenomena. Selepas jauh menjelajah, Khalid membawa Jual Ubat kembali ke tanah air dan dipentaskan di Istana Budaya pada 11 hingga 17 Mac ini. Pementasan ini dianjurkan oleh Institut Terjemahan dan Buku Malaysia (ITBM) dengan kerjasama Persatuan Penulis Nasional (Pena) dan Istana Budaya.

Walaupun sesetengah pelakon teater menganggap peluang ke Istana Budaya sebagai tanda aras pencapaian dalam teater, tetapi Khalid telah beberapa kali menolak apabila dipelawa membuat persembahan di situ. Nampaknya persembahan di Istana Budaya ini bukanlah terlalu membanggakan Khalid sebaliknya untuk memberi peluang kepada penonton tempatan menikmati monolog Jual Ubat.

Khalid dianggap seniman yang sukar difahami, diberi peluang tidak direbut dan sanggup berteater secara kecil-kecilan. Sebenarnya dia berteater bukan seperti sesetengah artis yang mempunyai tujuan tertentu merebut peluang ke Istana Budaya. Tetapi Khalid berteater untuk melontarkan pemikirannya.

Menyingkap sejarah perjalanan seninya, Khalid pernah berteater untuk mengutip derma di sekolahnya ketika berusia 12 tahun. Dia dan rakan-rakan berjaya mengutip sejumlah wang untuk diberikan kepada pihak sekolah dan titik mula itu tidak pernah dilupakan hingga kini.

Biarpun tidak mendapat pendidikan formal dalam bidang teater tetapi kreativitinya lahir dari pengalaman bergaul dengan pelbagai lapisan masyarakat.

Jadi tidak hairanlah mengapa setiap karya seninya mempunyai gaya serta pengisiannya yang dalam dan sinis kepada sikap masyarakat. Khalid adalah antara tokoh kelahiran Anak Alam, sebuah gerakan seni dan budaya yang berpengaruh pada dekad 1970-an.

Pengalaman sebagai penjual ubat di kaki lima Jalan Masjid India, Kuala Lumpur banyak membantu Khalid dalam memahami manusia.menyokong karyanya.

Menurut Khalid, hanya dengan menggunakan budaya dirinya dan rasa manusia yang tinggi, dia mampu menyampaikan sesuatu kepada khalayak yang terpaku dengan ubatnya.

"Isi kandungan penyampaian monolog ini hanya bersahaja tetapi ada cerita di sebalik cerita. Saya saya tidak tampilkan barang-barang (props) sebagai sokongan, saya hanya menggunakan batu dan botol sahaja. Bagi saya itu sudah memadai kerana yang penting bukan props tetapi isi," jelas Khalid pada sidang media di Istana Budaya baru-baru ini.

Intipati monolog ini menurut Khalid, menyentuh persoalan kemanusian dan alam sejagat.

"Dalam diri manusia sendiri pun ada batu, batu yang saya maksudkan yang ada dalam manusia adalah ‘kepala batu’," jelas Khalid.

Ditanya di manakah arah tuju Jual Ubat selepas ini, jelas Khalid selain menjelajah di rantau Asia Tenggara, dia merancang untuk membawa monolog ini ke negara-negara Timur Tengah.

Menggalakkan

"Alhamdulillah setiap pementasan Jual Ubat di mana-mana sekalipun dapat sambutan yang menggalakkan. Saya dapat tahu dan kenal berbeza-beza khalayak di setiap pementasan. Mungkin di Istana Budaya ini juga saya akan bertemu dengan khalayak dan golongan yang lain dan berbeza," tegas Khalid.

Dalam pada itu Ketua Pengarah Istana Budaya, Juhari Shaarani berkata, pihaknya berhadapan kesukaran untuk mendapatkan Khalid Salleh bagi mempersembahkan karyanya di situ.

"Cukup sukar untuk mendapatkan Khalid, mujur kali ini pihak ITBM dan Pena berjaya memujuknya dan membantu kami bagi mendapatkan tokoh teater ini.

"Bagi saya, Khalid pejuang seni hebat yang pernah kita miliki. Rugilah sekiranya tidak dapat melihat karya-karya ciptaannya negara ini sedangkan Khalid terkenal di luar negara antaranya Singapura dan Indonesia kerana bakatnya," jelas Juhari.

Monolog Jual Ubat menampilkan dua bahagian yang dimainkan sendiri oleh Khalid sebagai si penjual ubat yang ingin menarik perhatian orang ramai. Pada bahagian pertama Khalid sedaya upaya memukau penonton di hadapannya dengan aksinya agar mereka kekal duduk mendengar celotehnya.

Bahagian keduanya pula menampilkan ceritera seorang penjual ubat dan seekor burung gagak di atas kepala. Bahagian kedua inilah isi sebenar monolog ini dipersembahkan. Isu-isu sosial, politik, jati diri Melayu-Islam akan digaul dalam Jual Ubat.

Antara yang menarik dalam monolog ini ialah tentang sejarah burung gagak. Kata Khalid, burung gagak itu dulunya seorang menteri yang menyalahgunakan duit rakyat dan menjadi hitam kerana kejahatan yang dilakukan biarpun sehingga kini tidak mengaku membuatnya.

utusan malaysia

Monolog Jual Ubat Di Pentas Istana Budaya


"..sekejap lagi saya akan beritahu. Supaya tuan-tuan, anda semua membuka minda, membuka akal fikir. Setidak-tidaknya menjadi manusia yang menggunakan otak, menjadikan satu-satunya anugerah Tuhan yang tidak diberi kepada makhluk lain, iaitu hati budi dan akal fikir berguna dan dimanfaatkan..." - Penjual Ubat, Pandirnya Si Pandir

Istana Budaya (IB), Institut Terjemahan & Buku Malaysia (ITBM) dan Persatuan Penulis Nasional (PENA) mempersembahkan Monolog Jual Ubat di pentas Lambang Sari, Istana Budaya bermula 11 hingga 17 Mac 2014 ini. Pementasan ini bakal berlangsung pada setiap hari selama tujuh (7) hari dengan dua (2) persembahan matinee pada 15 dan 16 Mac 2014.

Monolog Jual Ubat menampilkan Khalid Salleh sebagai pemain watak dan pendukung kepada karya yang telah mula dipersembahkan kepada umum lebih dua dekad lalu dan kini pula tampil di pentas prestij Istana Budaya. Sedikit elemen mistik ditonjolkan dalam monolog ini memberikan impak misteri kepada karya yang menyentuh isu sosial dan jati diri bangsa. Karya ini bukan sahaja telah dipertontonkan di khalayak tempatan, malahan mendapat sambutan hebat daripada masyarakat di negara jiran iaitu, Singapura dan beberapa daerah di Indonesia seperti Jakarta, Batam, Surabaya, Medan dan Makassar.

Peminat seni teater pasti menantikan aksi dan permainan kata Khalid Salleh yang bakal menusuk pemikiran mereka yang mahu melihat sisi lain si penjual ubat. Ubat apa yang dijual Khalid Salleh ini? Nantikan dan jangan ketinggalan menyaksikan Monolog Jual Ubat oleh Khalid Salleh di Lambang Sari Mac ini!

itbm



"Suara lengkingan tajam tiba-tiba merentap. Mencairkan semua pandangan kepada pecahan kaca dan bongkahan batu di tengah gelanggang. Si Penjual Ubat masih menggetarkan tangannya. Sambil membuka kelopak matanya perlahan-lahan, dia mulai melangkah bersama senyuman yang tersengih di bibirnya. Dari kaca bola matanya terpancar saat untuk bersandiwara." - Petikan daripada skrip Jual Ubat yang terkandung dalam buku Pandirnya Si Pandir karya Khalid Salleh (halaman 83).

Monolog Jual Ubat pada 11 hingga 17 Mac 2014 di Istana Budaya.





Monolog Jual Ubat: Khalid Salleh ubati jiwa penonton
Irwan Muhammad Zain
Mac 18, 2014


Monolog Jual Ubat membuktikan sosok bernama Khalid Salleh bukan calang-calang seniman. Biar banyak ubat yang mujarobat, namun ubat yang dijual Khalid Salleh atau mesra disapa Wak Khalid bukan sebarang ubat.

Cukup dengan sebotol air mineral, sebuah beg dan batu diatas botol serta kain hitam yang dibentang, Monolog Jual Ubat mampu memberi kesan yang besar kepada penonton.

Khalid dengan pengalaman hidupnya mengajar kita untuk lebih mengenali siapa kita, mengajar kita untuk lebih dekat dengan pemilik segala rahsia langit dan bumi. Dua jam setengah, Khalid mencetuskan keinginan untuk berfikir tentang hakikat kejadian manusia, tentang alam dan tentang yang maha mengetahui.

Khalid Salleh dan monolog jual ubat

Lihat saja bagaimana Khalid sinis terhadap kisah Israk dan Mikraj. Betapa ramai yang masih tidak memahami perjalanan kerohanian sebaliknya lebih percaya dan masih terperangkap dengan gambaran buraq yang dijaja saudagar Yaman.

Khalid mempunyai banyak naskah yang hebat namun Jual Ubat antara yang istimewa bagi beliau sendiri dan mereka yang pernah menontonnya sebelum ini.

Sebelum singgah ke Istana Budaya, Khalid dan Monolog Jual Ubat pernah pusing ke seluruh negara dan berpetualang di beberapa tempat di Indonesia.

Bermula 11 Mac lalu hingga ke malam ini, kerjasama antara Institut Terjemahan & Buku Malaysia (ITBM), Persatuan Penulis Nasional (Pena) dan Istana Budaya memberi peluang kepada mereka yang sebelum ini terlepas peluang menerima 'rawatan jiwa' dari Khalid untuk 'diubati' oleh seniman yang sering dianggap sukar difahami.

Khalid tidak pernah mendapat pendidikan formal dalam bidang teater tetapi kreativitinya lahir dari pengalaman bergaul dengan pelbagai lapisan masyarakat.


Khalid Salleh Monolog Jual Ubat

KUALA LUMPUR: Pengalaman menjual ubat di kaki lima Jalan Masjid India dan Benteng, Kuala Lumpur banyak membantu Khalid memahami gelagat manusia. Kerana itu karya beliau sebenarnya sangat dekat dekat masyarakat terutamanya orang Melayu dan ada ketikanya sangat sinis terhadap bangsanya.

Khalid merupakan Penerima Anugerah Seni Negara 2006 dan merupakan pelakon lelaki Malaysia yang kedua memenangi anugerah Pelakon Lelaki Terbaik di Festival Filem Asia Pasifik, selepas Seniman Agung Tan Sri P. Ramlee.

astro awani
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16 Apr 2014

Blood Moon










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Ibnu Abbas




Profesor ulung dunia Islam

ABDULLAH bin Abbas atau Ibnu Abbas adalah antara beberapa orang tokoh Islam yang belum menjangkau usia dewasa ketika wafatnya Rasulullah SAW. Namun, ketika mencapai umur dewasa, beliau telah dapat menjadikan dirinya sebagai ilmuwan terbilang, setaraf dengan ilmuwan Islam lain seperti Ibnu Sina, Al-Khawarizmi dan sebagainya.

Salah satu keistimewaan Abdullah bin Abbas berbanding para sahabat Nabi Muhammad SAW yang lain ialah tentang keluasan ilmu yang dimilikinya.

Ibnu Abbas terkenal sebagai tokoh yang menguasai pelbagai bidang ilmu pengetahuan, antaranya ilmu sastera dan bahasa Arab, ilmu tafsir, ilmu matematik dan ilmu faraid. Justeru, keluasan ilmunya itu membolehkan beliau mendapat gelaran pendeta Islam atau profesor dalam konteks bahasa moden pada hari ini. Maka, Abdullah bin Abbas merupakan profesor ulung dalam dunia Islam. Kejayaan yang beliau peroleh salah satu puncanya adalah doa Rasulullah SAW.

Doa baginda SAW ternyata dimakbulkan oleh Allah SWT apabila Abdullah bin Abbas berjaya memiliki sifat-sifat tersebut, tatkala beliau mencapai umur dewasa. Abdullah bin Abbas tergolong dalam keluarga baginda dan beliau adalah sepupu Nabi SAW kerana ayah Abdullah, iaitu Abbas bin Muttalib adalah bapa saudara Rasulullah SAW.

Apabila Rasulullah SAW wafat, Abdullah masih kecil lagi dan adalah diriwayatkan bahawa beliau telah melakukan solat di belakang baginda semasa umurnya tidak kurang dari lapan tahun. Semenjak kecil, Abdullah gemar bermain di rumah baginda dan pada suatu hari ketika Abdullah berlari menuju ke rumah baginda, beliau ternampak baginda Rasulullah sedang berwuduk, maka dengan segera Abdullah menghulurkan air wuduk untuk Rasululla h SAW.

Perbuatan Abdullah amat menggembirakan baginda Rasulullah dan setelah baginda selesai menunaikan solat, lantas baginda SAW memangku Abdullah sambil mengusap kepala Abdullah lalu baginda berdoa: “Ya Allah berikanlah keberkahan kepadanya dan berikanlah ilmu daripadanya."

Ibu Abbas pernah didoakan oleh Rasulullah SAW sebanyak dua kali, ketika dipeluk oleh baginda dan ketika melayani Rasulullah dengan mengambil wuduk. Doa Nabi SAW bermaksud: Ya Allah fahamkanlah (faqihkanlah) ia. (riwayat Muslim)

Terpandang Jibril

Satu lagi peristiwa yang diriwayatkan mengenai Abdullah ialah kisah beliau terpandang malaikat Jibril a.s.. Menurutnya, pada suatu hari ketika beliau memasuki rumah Rasulullah, Abdullah telah ternampak ada seorang lelaki yang tidak dikenalinya sedang bersama Rasulullah SAW.

Lantas Abdullah segera pulang akibat terlalu gementar dan terus memberitahu ayahnya Abbas bin Muttalib. Kemudian ayahnya berkata, “Wahai anakku, kau telah melihat Jibril yang kebetulan sedang bertemu dengan Rasulullah SAW?"

Ketika Abdullah bin Abbas meningkat dewasa, beliau telah mencapai kedudukan yang terkemuka dalam kalangan para sahabat Rasulullah. Beliau telah bekerja keras mengumpulkan hadis-hadis Rasulullah SAW dan memahami al-Quran sedalam mungkin serta memberikan fatwa-fatwa kepada masyarakat berhubung dengan hukum agama.

Menjelang zaman pemerintahan Khalifah Umar Al-Khattab r.a, Abdullah bin Abbas telah mencapai pelbagai kejayaan, antaranya sebagai ahli tafsir dan hadis yang terkemuka sehingga orang ramai dari seluruh pelosok negeri berminat untuk menuntut ilmu dengannya.

Khalifah Umar r.a bukan sahaja sentiasa berada di sisi Abdullah bin Abbas, bahkan sentiasa bertukar pandangan dengan Abdullah sepertimana yang selalu Rasulullah SAW lakukan dengan para sahabat. Sebagai tanda penghargaan kepada Abdullah bin Abbas,

Sayidina Umar al-Khattab telah mengelarkan Abdullah bin Abbas sebagai, “Ibnu Abbas adalah seorang pemuda yang telah tua ilmunya, mempunyai lidah yang amat berharga dan mempunyai hati yang bersih."

Selain itu, Saidina Umar al-Khattab r.a pernah berkata, “Sebaik-baik tafsir al-Quran adalah daripada Ibnu Abbas. Jika umurku masih panjang, nescaya aku akan selalu berdampingan dengan Abdullah bin Abbas." Di samping itu, Umar al-Khattab juga pernah berkata bahawa “Tidak ada fatwa yang lebih baik yang pernah aku dengar melainkan daripada fatwa Ibnu Abbas."

Demikianlah kebesaran Ibnu Abbas sebagai tokoh tafsir yang tiada tolok bandingnya. Segala puji bagi Allah yang telah memperkenankan doa Nabi SAW terhadap diri Abdullah bin Abbas r.a.

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Abdullah Ibn Abbas


Abdullah was the son of Abbas, an uncle of the noble Prophet. He was born just three years before the Hijrah. When the Prophet died, Abdullah was thus only thirteen years old.

When he was born, his mother took him to the blessed Prophet who put some of his saliva on the babe's tongue even before he began to suckle. This was the beginning of the close and intimate tie between Abbas and the Prophet that was to be part of a life-long love and devotion.

When Abdullah reached the age of discretion, he attached himself to the service of the Prophet. He would run to fetch water for him when he wanted to make wudu. During Salat, he would stand behind the Prophet in prayer and when the Prophet went on journeys or expeditions, he would follow next in line to him. Abdullah thus became like the shadow of the Prophet, constantly in his company.

In all these situations he was attentive and alert to whatever the Prophet did and said. His heart was enthusiastic and his young mind was pure and uncluttered, committing the Prophet's words to memory with the capacity and accuracy of a recording instrument. In this way and through his constant researches later, as we shall see, Abdullah became one of the most learned companions of the Prophet, preserving on behalf of later generations of Muslims, the priceless words of the Messenger of God. It is said that he committed to memory about one thousand, six hundred and sixty sayings of the Prophet which are recorded and authenticated in the collections of al-Bukhari and Muslim.

The Prophet would often draw Abdullah as a child close to him, pat him on the shoulder and pray: "O Lord, make him acquire a deep understanding of the religion of Islam and instruct him in the meaning and interpretation of things."

There were many occasions thereafter when the blessed Prophet would repeat this dua or prayer for his cousin and before long Abdullah ibn Abbas realized that his life was to be devoted to the pursuit of learning and knowledge.

The Prophet moreover prayed that he be granted not just knowledge and understanding but wisdom. Abdullah related the following incident about himself: "Once the Prophet, peace be upon him, was on the point of performing wudu. I hurried to get water ready for him. He was pleased with what I was doing. As he was about to begin Salat, he indicated that I should stand at his side. However, I stood behind him. When the Salat was finished, he turned to me and said: 'What prevented you from being at my side, O Abdullah?' 'You are too illustrious and too great in my eyes for me to stand side by side with you,' I replied.

Raising his hands to the heavens, the Prophet then prayed: 'O Lord, grant him wisdom." The Prophet's prayer undoubtedly was granted for the young Abdullah was to prove time and again that he possessed a wisdom beyond his years. But it was a wisdom that came only with devotion and the dogged pursuit of knowledge both during the Prophet's lifetime and after his death.

During the lifetime of the Prophet, Abdullah would not miss any of his assemblies and he would commit to memory whatever he said. After the Prophet passed away, he would take care to go to as many companions as possible especially those who knew the Prophet longer and learn from them what the Prophet had taught them. Whenever he heard that someone knew a hadith of the Prophet which he did not know he would go quickly to him and record it. He would subject whatever he heard to close scrutiny and check it against other reports. He would go to as many as thirty companions to verify a single matter.

Abdullah described what he once did on hearing that a companion of the Prophet knew a hadith unknown to him: "I went to him during the time of the afternoon siesta and spread my cloak in front of his door. The wind blew dust on me (as I sat waiting for him). If I wished I could have sought his permission to enter and he would certainly have given me permission. But I preferred to wait on him so that he could be completely refreshed. Coming out of his house and seeing me in that condition he said: 'O cousin of the Prophet! What's the matter with you? If you had sent for me I would have come to you.' 'I am the one who should come to you, for knowledge is sought, it does not just come,' I said. I asked him about the hadith and learnt from him."

In this way, the dedicated Abdullah would ask, and ask, and go on asking. And he would sift and scrutinize the information he had collected with his keen and meticulous mind.

It was not only in the collection of hadith that Abdullah specialized. He devoted himself to acquiring knowledge in a wide variety of fields. He had a special admiration for persons like Zayd ibn Thabit, the recorder of the revelation, the leading judge and jurist consult in Madinah, an expert in the laws of inheritance and in reading the Quran. When Zayd intended to go on a trip, the young Abdullah would stand humbly at his side and taking hold of the reins of his mount would adopt the attitude of a humble servant in the presence of his master. Zayd would say to him: "Don't, O cousin of the Prophet."

"Thus we were commanded to treat the learned ones among us," Abdullah would say. "And Zayd would say to him in turn: "Let me see your hand." Abdullah would stretch out his hand. Zayd, taking it, would kiss it and say: "Thus we were commanded to treat the ahl al-bayt members of the household of the Prophet."

As Abdullah's knowledge grew, he grew in stature. Masruq ibn al Ajda said of him: "Whenever I saw Ibn Abbas, I would say: He is the most handsome of men. When he spoke, I would say: He is the most eloquent of men. And when he held a conversation, I would say: He is the most knowledgeable of men."

The Khalifah Umar ibn al-Khattab often sought his advice on important matters of state and described him as "the young man of maturity".

Sad ibn abi Waqqas described him with these words: "I have never seen someone who was quicker in understanding, who had more knowledge and greater wisdom than Ibn Abbas. I have seen Umar summon him to discuss difficult problems in the presence of veterans of Badr from among the Muhajirin and Ansar. Ibn Abbas would speak and Umar would not disregard what he had to say."

It is these qualities which resulted in Abdullah ibn Abbas being known as "the learned man of this Ummah".

Abdullah ibn Abbas was not content to accumulate knowledge. He felt he had a duty to the ummah to educate those in search of knowledge and the general masses of the Muslim community. He turned to teaching and his house became a university - yes, a university in the full sense of the word, a university with specialized teaching but with the difference that there was only one teacher Abdullah ibn Abbas.

There was an enthusiastic response to Abdullah's classes. One of his companions described a typical scene in front of his house: "I saw people converging on the roads leading to his house until there was hardly any room in front of his house. I went in and told him about the crowds of people at his door and he said: 'Get me water for wudu.'

He performed wudu and, seating himself, said: 'Go out and say to them: Whoever wants to ask about the Quran and its letters (pronunciation) let him enter.'

This I did and people entered until the house was filled. Whatever he was asked, Abdullah was able to elucidate and even provide additional information to what was asked. Then (to his students) he said: 'Make way for your brothers.'

Then to me he said: 'Go out and say: Who wants to ask about the Quran and its interpretation, let him enter'.

Again the house was filled and Abdullah elucidated and provided more information than what was requested."

And so it continued with groups of people coming in to discuss fiqh (jurisprudence), halal and haram (the lawful and the prohibited in Islam), inheritance laws, Arabic language, poetry and etymology.

To avoid congestion with many groups of people coming to discuss various subjects on a single day, Abdullah decided to devote one day exclusively for a particular discipline. On one day, only the exegesis of the Quran would be taught while on another day only fiqh (jurisprudence). The maghazi or campaigns of the Prophet, poetry, Arab history before Islam were each allocated a special day.

Abdullah ibn Abbas brought to his teaching a powerful memory and a formidable intellect. His explanations were precise, clear and logical. His arguments were persuasive and supported by pertinent textual evidence and historical facts.

One occasion when his formidable powers of persuasion was used was during the caliphate of Ali. A large number of supporters of Ali in his stand against Muawiyah had just deserted him. Abdullah ibn Abbas went to Ali and requested permission to speak to them. Ali hesitated fearing that Abdullah would be in danger at their hands but eventually gave way on Abdullah's optimism that nothing untoward would happen.


Abdullah went over to the group. They were absorbed in worship. Some were not willing to let him speak but others were prepared to give him a hearing.

"Tell me" asked Abdullah, "what grievances have you against the cousin of the Prophet, the husband of his daughter and the first of those who believed in him?"

"The men proceeded to relate three main complaints against Ali. First, that he appointed men to pass judgment in matters pertaining to the religion of God - meaning that Ali had agreed to accept the arbitration of Abu Musa al-Asbari and Amr ibn al-As in the dispute with Muawiyah. Secondly, that he fought and did not take booty nor prisoners of war. Thirdly, that he did not insist on the title of Amir al-Muminin during the arbitration process although the Muslims had pledged allegiance to him and he was their legitimate amir. To them this was obviously a sign of weakness and a sign that Ali was prepared to bring his legitimate position as Amir al-Muminin into disrepute.

In reply, Abdullah asked them that should he cite verses from the Quran and sayings of the Prophet to which they had no objection and which related to their criticisms, would they be prepared to change their position. They replied that they would and Abdullah proceeded: "Regarding your statement that Ali has appointed men to pass judgment in matters pertaining to Allah's religion, Allah Glorified and Exalted is He, says: 'O you who believe! Kill not game while in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb. If any of you do so intentionally, the compensation is an offering, of a domestic animal equivalent to the one he killed and adjudged by two just men among." "I adjure you, by God! Is the adjudication by men in matters pertaining to the preservation of their blood and their lives and making peace between them more deserving of attention than adjudication over a rabbit whose value is only a quarter of a dirham?"

Their reply was of course that arbitration was more important in the case of preserving Muslim lives and making peace among them than over the killing of game in the sacred precincts for which Allah sanctioned arbitration by men.

"Have we then finished with this point?" asked Abdullah and their reply was: "Allahumma, naam - O Lord, yes!" Abdullah went on: "As for your statement that Ali fought and did not take prisoners of war as the Prophet did, do you really desire to take your "mother" Aishah as a captive and treat her as fair game in the way that captives are treated? If your answer is "Yes", then you have fallen into kufr (disbelief). And if you say that she is not your "mother", you would also have fallen into a state of kufr for Allah, Glorified and Exalted is He, has said: 'The Prophet is closer to the believers than their own selves and his wives are their mothers (entitled to respect and consideration).' (The Quran, Surah al-Ahzab, 34:6).

"Choose for yourself what you want," said Abdullah and then he asked: "Have we then finished with this point?" and this time too their reply was: "Allahumma, naam - O Lord, yes!" Abdullah went on: "As for your statement that Ali has surrendered the title of Amir al-Muminin, (remember) that the Prophet himself, peace and blessings of God be on him, at the time of Hudaybiyyah, demanded that the mushrikin write in the truce which he concluded with them: 'This is what the Messenger of God has agreed...' and they retorted: 'If we believed that you were the Messenger of God we would not have blocked your way to the Kabah nor would we have fought you. Write instead: 'Muhammad the son of Abdullah.' The Prophet conceded their demand while saying: 'By God, I am the Messenger of God even if they reject me." At this point Abdullah ibn Abbas asked the dissidents: "Have we then finished with this point? and their reply was once again:

"Allahumma, naam - O Lord, yes!"

One of the fruits of this verbal challenge in which Abdullah displayed his intimate knowledge of the Quran and the sirah of the Prophet as well as his remarkable powers of argument and persuasion, was that the majority, about twenty thousand men, returned to the ranks of Ali. About four thousand however remained obdurate. These latter came to be known as Kharijites.

On this and other occasions, the courageous Abdullah showed that he preferred peace above war, and logic against force and violence. However, he was not only known for his courage, his perceptive thought and his vast knowledge. He was also known for his great generosity and hospitality. Some of his contemporaries said of his household: "We have not seen a house which has more food or drink or fruit or knowledge than the house of Ibn Abbas."


He had a genuine and abiding concern for people. He was thoughtful and caring. He once said: "When I realize the importance of a verse of God's Book, I would wish that all people should know what I know.

"When I hear of a Muslim ruler who deals equitably and rules justly, I am happy on his account and I pray for him...

"When I hear of rains which fail on the land of Muslims, that fills me with happiness..."

Abdullah ibn Abbas was constant in his devotions. He kept voluntary fasts regularly and often stayed up at night in Prayer. He would weep while praying and reading the Quran. And when reciting verses dealing with death, resurrection and the life hereafter his voice would be heavy from deep sobbing.

He passed away at the age of seventy one in the mountainous city of Taif.



The Learned Scholar: Abdullah ibn `Abbas

Thirst for Knowledge

Abdullah ibn `Abbas was still a child when Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) passed away.

He was, at best, on the verge of maturity. Nevertheless, he was a rival of the senior companions in his knowledge, erudition, and good opinion.

He relates the following about his pursuit of knowledge:

After the Prophet (peace be upon him) died, I said to a man from among the people of Madinah:

“Let’s go and ask the Companions about the Hadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him), because the Hadith are so many.”

He said to me:

“This is strange of you, Ibn `Abbas. Do you think that the people need you when there are so many of the Prophet’s Companions around?”

So that man did nothing and I went forward, pursuing the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and asking them about his Hadith. Whenever I learned that a man had heard a hadith directly from the Prophet (peace be upon him) and I found him taking an afternoon nap, I would place my cloak against his door to shield my face from the wind until he came out. He would say:

“What has brought you here, cousin of Allah’s Messenger?’ I would reply:

“A hadith that I have learned you heard directly from the Prophet and that I wished to hear directly from you.” He would say:

“Why didn’t you send for me to come to you?”

I would say: “It was more right for me to come to you.”

That man (from the beginning of my story) passed me by one day while the people were coming to me with their inquiries and he said:

“You were smarter than me.” (Ahmad and Al-Darimi)

The Prophet’s Encouragement
This encouragement had a lasting impression on the young Ibn `Abbas

This is how Ibn `Abbas acquired a great deal of knowledge, so much so that the people were in need of him. They would converge on him with their questions, though he had been very young during the Prophet’s lifetime. Ibn `Abbas embarked on the pursuit of knowledge because of the Prophet’s encouragement. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) had made a special supplication for him, saying:

“O Allah, give him understanding of the faith and teach him how to interpret (the Quran).” (Ahmad and Al-Hakim)

This encouragement had a lasting impression on the young Ibn `Abbas. It made him conscientious about Islamic knowledge and its value. This is how such a young man became equal to the greatest scholars of his day. Umar would bring him to his meetings with the most prominent of the Emigrants. Ibn `Abbas relates to us the following:

Thinking Differently

"The Caliph Umar used to consult with me along with the Prophet’s companions. `Abd Al-Rahman ibn `Awf objected to this and said to Umar:

“Do you consult with him when we have children his age?”


Umar replied:

“It is on account of his learning.”

Umar then asked me about the chapter of the Quran that goes:
{When the help of Allah comes and the victory, and you see people entering into Allah’s religion in crowds, then celebrate the praises of your Lord and seek His forgiveness, for verily He is Oft-Forgiving.} (An-Nasr 110)

I replied: “It foretells the end of the life of Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) that Allah was making him aware of.” Umar said: “I swear by Allah, what I know of this is exactly what you know.” (Al-Tirmidhi)

Ibn `Abbas relates another event:

Umar ibn al-Khattab used to summon me along with the companions of the Prophet and would tell me not to speak until they have spoken. He summoned them and asked them about the Night of Decree (Laylatu al-Qadr). He related to them that the Prophet Muhammad had said:

“Look for it in the last ten nights of Ramadan.”

Then he asked:

“Which night do you think it is?”
“When Allah wishes good for someone, He gives that person understanding of the religion.”

Some suggested it was the first of the ten nights, others said it was the third, and some said it was the fifth. All this time I remained silent. Umar then said to me: “Why don’t you speak?”

I said: “If you permit me, O Commander of the Faithful, I will speak.”

He said: “I did not summon you except to hear you speak.”

I said: “I can give you my opinion.”

He said: “That is what we are asking from you.”

Then I said: “It is the seventh of the ten nights. Allah mentions seven heavens and seven Earths. He created the human being from seven and He created the plants of the Earth from seven.”

Umar said: “You have informed me of what I know, but there is something of this that I do not know. What do you mean by your statement that the plants of the Earth are from seven?”

I then told him that Allah says:

{And We split open the Earth, and produced therein corn and grapes and herbs and olives and dates and dense gardens and fruits and fodder.} ('Abasa 80: 26-30)

Umar then said:

"You were all unable to say anything like what this youth has said whose mind is not yet fully matured. By Allah, I do not see this matter to be except as he sees it.” He then said to me:

“I used to order you not to speak until they have spoken, but now I order you to speak along with them.” (Al-Hakim)

Ibn `Abbas is an example of sincerity and dedication in the pursuit of Islamic knowledge. He is an example of what the Prophet said:

“When Allah wishes good for someone, He gives that person understanding of the religion.” (Al-Bukhari)

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