8 Feb 2014

Muzik dan jiwa


Levon Minassian and Armand Amar



Duduk merupakan  instrumen angin Armenia  yang diperbuat  daripada kayu aprikot dengan bunyi yang cukup indah. Ia mempunyai paip kayu silinder, satu rantai lebar dan sembilan lubang (8 jari-lubang dan satu ibu jari-lubang). Instrumen ini  digunakan untuk lagu-lagu perlahan  terutama bagi mengiringi lagu-lagu rakyat dan  irama yang lebih cepat dalam tarian.  Instrumen muzik ini dianggap mampu menyampaikan emosi rakyat Armenia secara jujur. Duduk  telah menjadi sebahagian daripada kehidupan harian di Armenia. Ia dimainkan dalam majlis perayaan, perkahwinan dan kekeluargaan.

Instumen muzik hasil  buatan tangan ini menggunakan kayu aprikot. Duduk merupakan instrumen muzik yang mempunyai sejarah  yang cukup lama, kira-kira 1,500 tahun silam. Peralatan paip berongga dengan lapan lubang jari di sebelah atas dan satu lubang untuk ibu jari pada bahagian bawah  melalui sejarah perjalanan panjang . Pengembaraan jauh ini  membawa perubahan ketara terhadap penggunaan instrumen ini dari segi penalaan dan bilangan lubang alat ini. Variasi duduk duduk  (disebut " doo- dook ") didapati  di Georgia, Azerbaijan,Turki, dan Parsi, dan juga sejauh Balkan. Variasi juga berlaku dalam sebutan instrumen ini "duduki" (dalam bahasa Georgia) , " Mey "( di Turki ), dan " Balaban " (di Azerbaijan dan di bahagian-bahagian Asia Tengah). Duduk dibina dalam tiga saiz, antara 11-16 inci. Sebagai alat muzik , ia tidak berubah sepanjang abad, tetapi cara bermain ia telah disempurnakan dan bunyi telah bertambah baik. Dinamik bunyi dikawal dengan penyesuaian  bibir dan jari.

Duduk juga mendapat tempat teristimewa dalam industri perfileman.  Peralatan ini menjadi pilihan untuk soundtrack filem-filem besar seperti The Crow,  Gladiator, Syriana, Alexander, The Crow, The Siege dan lain-lain. Instrumen istimewa ini dianggap mampu berbicara tentang emosi dan dan berupaya merungkai kejiwaan dalam muziknya.  Pemuzik Venezuela kelahiran Pedro Eustache telah dihantui oleh bunyi instrumen misteri ini. Bagi Pedro "Kedengarannya seperti selo yang memenuhi suara, memenuhi klarinet, memenuhi banyak kesakitan, amat ekspresif dan ia hanya menggegarkan dunia saya"

Bagi John Debney, duduk lebih daripada instrumen. Duduk adalah alat muzik penuh dramatik. John Debney menyatakan bahawa beliau memilih duduk  kerana ia kedengaran seperti suara manusia . Apabila komposer filem menggunakannya, mereka bertujuan merujuk kepada masa lalu yang jauh dan tanah jauh. Tambah Debney "Ia membangkitkan sesuatu zaman silam saya berfikir bahawa kebanyakan orang Barat telah disediakan untuk instrumen ini kerana ia adalah instrumen sayu yang sangat eksotik dan sangat cantik"

 Djivan Gasparyan
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Duduk

The duduk (Armenian: դուդուկ), traditionally known since antiquity as ծիրանափող (tsiranapogh), is a traditional woodwind instrument indigenous to Armenia.Variations of it are popular in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia.

It is a distant relative of East Asian instruments, such as the Chinese guanzi, the Korean piri and the Japanese hichiriki. Unlike other double reed instruments, such as the oboe or shawm, the duduk has a very large (in proportion to the instrument) and unflattened reed, and is cylindrical in shape (not conical) giving it a quality closer to a clarinet or saxophone than a double-reed.

In 2005, UNESCO proclaimed the Armenian duduk music as a Masterpiece of the Intangible Heritage of Humanity.


The English word is often used generically for a family of ethnic instruments including the doudouk or duduk (դուդուկ), pronounced [duˈduk], also tsiranapogh ծիրանափող, pronounced [tsiɾɑnɑˈpʰoʁ], literally "apricot horn" in Armenian).

The word itself is a loanword ultimately derived from Turkish "düdük", likely of onomatopoeic origin. Another theory includes Proto-Turkic *dǖtük ("pipe"), itself possibly from Proto-Altaic *tū́ti ("tube, round vessel").  During the Ottoman rule of Armenia, usage of the word "duduk" displaced the original name of the instrument, which was known since antiquity as a Tsiranapogh (Armenian: Ծիրանափող).[citation needed] The word dudka in Slavic languages is a diminutive of duda and is of native Slavic[12] origin. This instrument is not to be confused with the northwestern Bulgarian folk instrument of the same name (see below, Balkan duduk).


The duduk is a double reed instrument with ancient origins, having existed since the fifth century, while there are Armenian scholars who believe it existed more than 1500 years before that.[13] The earliest instruments similar to the duduk's present form are made of bone or entirely of cane. Today, the duduk is exclusively made of wood with a large double reed. Duduks are mainly made from aged apricot wood.

The particular tuning depends heavily on the region which it is played. In the twentieth century, the Armenian duduk began to be standardized diatonic in scale and single-octave in range. Accidentals, or chromatics are achieved using fingering techniques. The instrument's body also has different lengths depending upon the range of the instrument and region. The reed (Armenian: եղեգն, eġegn), is made from one or two pieces of cane in a duck-bill type assembly. Unlike other double-reed instruments, the reed is quite wide, helping to give the duduk both its unique, mournful sound, as well as its remarkable breath requirements. The duduk player is called dudukahar (դուդուկահար) in Armenian.

The performer uses air stored in his cheeks to keep playing the instrument while he inhales air into his lungs. This “circular” breathing technique is commonly used with all the double-reed instruments in the Middle East.  Duduk "is invariably played with the accompaniment of a second dum duduk, which gives the music an energy and tonic atmosphere, changing the scale harmoniously with the principal duduk."


Armenian musicologists cite evidence of the duduk's use as early as 1200 BC, though Western scholars suggest it is 1,500 years old. Variants of the duduk can be found in Armenia and the Caucasus. The history of the Armenian duduk music is dated to the reign of the Armenian king Tigran the Great, who reigned from 95–55 B.C. According to ethnomusicologist Dr. Jonathan McCollum, the instrument is depicted in numerous Armenian manuscripts of the Middle Age, and is "actually the only truly Armenian instrument that’s survived through history, and as such is a symbol of Armenian national identity ... The most important quality of the duduk is its ability to express the language dialectic and mood of the Armenian language, which is often the most challenging quality to a duduk player."


The sound of the duduk, if not the instrument itself, has become known to a large audience through its use in popular film soundtracks. Starting with Peter Gabriel's score for Martin Scorsese's The Last Temptation of Christ, the duduk's archaic and mournful sound has been employed in a variety of genres to depict such moods. Djivan Gasparyan played the duduk in Gladiator, Syriana, and Blood Diamond, among others. The duduk was also used extensively in Battlestar Galactica. The duduk was also used in the series Avatar: The Last Airbender. It's computer-altered sound was given to the fictitious Tsungi horn, played by a number of the characters. The sound of the duduk was used in The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. A Lullaby that Mr. Tumnus plays on a fictitious double flute.In America, famed oboe player Chris Bleth has played the duduk on select recordings for film and television.

 wikipedia

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